Reshape is one of these little functions, which look so simple and straightforward that you don’t think much about them. It’s quite useful and, I’m pretty sure, familiar to everyone who’s written something in a language like Matlab. However, in other languages it might become a bit tricky.

### Question

I asked a bunch of people how they would write reshape in a .NET language. That’s not really a problem when you know the exact type and dimensionality, e.g. when you always convert 2D-array to 3D, but what if you don’t? Given the limitations of generic constraints, the only requirement to the output (in addition to correctness, of course) was an ability to get the full information about the underlying types. And that’s where the challenge starts…

### Requirements

Let’s take a look at a somewhat simplified problem - converting a single-dimensional array into a multidimensional one. My usecase was reading the files in .mat binary format as a part of the type provider: read the bytes, figure out the type and if it’s supposed to be an array - make it an array. Type conversions are not relevant for reshaping itself, so we can skip that for now.

• The input is a single-dimensional array of any type and another array with dimension sizes;
• The output is another array, properly reshaped, where the type information is preserved (not necessary explicitly);
• Use standard types if possible.

### Meet System.Array

Unfortunately, that’s not the case for fancy type signatures, so we’ll go with a plain old System.Array.

The simplest example is 1D -> 1D “conversion”, it’s possible to get the type information or cast the output to a real array type, whether it’s int[], string[], float[][] or anything else:

 1 2 3 4 5  let f (xs: System.Array) = xs let xs = [| 1;2;3;4;5 |] let ys = f xs // val ys : System.Array = [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|] ys.GetType().Name // "Int32[]"

Great! The next step is to add a dimension:

 1 2  let f2 (xs: System.Array) = [| xs; xs |] let ys = f2 xs // val ys : System.Array [] = [|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]; [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]|]

This one doesn’t work for us because of its return type, so:

 1 2 3  let f3 (xs: Array) = [| xs; xs |] :> Array;; let ys = f3 xs // val ys : Array = [|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]; [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]|] ys.GetType().Name // "Array[]"

And the same output with Array.init methods:

 1 2 3  let f4 (xs: Array) = Array.init 2 (fun _ -> xs) :> Array;; let ys = f4 xs // val ys : System.Array = [|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]; [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]|] ys.GetType().Name // "Array[]"

You also can’t cast the result any more - ys :?> int[][] throws an exception:

 1 2 3 4  System.InvalidCastException: Cannot cast from source type to destination type. at <StartupCode$FSI_0017>.$FSI_0017.main@ () [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 at (wrapper managed-to-native) System.Reflection.MonoMethod:InternalInvoke (System.Reflection.MonoMethod,object,object[],System.Exception&) at System.Reflection.MonoMethod.Invoke (System.Object obj, BindingFlags invokeAttr, System.Reflection.Binder binder, System.Object[] parameters, System.Globalization.CultureInfo culture) [0x00000] in <filename unknown>:0 

And yes, of course, you can get the ints out of it:

 1 2 3  let arr = ys.GetValue 0 // val arr : obj = [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|] arr.GetType().Name // val it : string = "Int32[]" arr :?> int[] // val it : int [] = [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]

That’s somewhat disappointing, because we do need something castable, with more or less concrete type. But it’s quite intuitive: the argument is Array - the output is Array[], in the typed version 'T[] - 'T[][]:

 1 2 3 4  let f5 (xs: int[]) = Array.init 2 (fun _ -> xs) :> Array let ys = f5 xs // val ys : System.Array = [|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]; [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]|] ys.GetType().Name // val it : string = "Int32[][]" ys :?> int[][] // val it : int [] [] = [|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]; [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]|]

or something like that:

 1 2 3  let f6 (xs: Array) = Array.init 2 (fun _ -> xs :?> int[]) :> Array let ys = f6 xs // val ys : Array = [|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]; [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]|] ys.GetType().Name // val it : string = "Int32[][]" 

At this point we’re back to System.Array and its method CreateInstance:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  let f7 (xs: Array) = let t = xs.GetType() let ys = Array.CreateInstance(t, 2) for i in 0..1 do ys.SetValue(xs, i) ys let ys = f7 xs // val ys : Array = [|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]; [|1; 2; 3; 4; 5|]|] ys.GetType().Name // val it : string = "Int32[][]" 

### Reshape

So this is the way to go. For an arbitrary number of dimensions we can use the same set of functions, the only thing left is filling the array with actual values.

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  // init array of specific type let fill t (len: int) f = let xs = Array.CreateInstance(t, len) for i in 0..len - 1 do xs.SetValue(f i, i) xs // prod of prev dimensions: [|2; 3; 4|] -> [|1; 2; 6; 24|] let inline prods dims = Array.scan ((*)) 1 dims // all array types from T[][]..[] to T[] let types (t: Type) n = (t, 0) |> Seq.unfold (fun (t, i) -> if i = n then None else Some (t, (t.MakeArrayType(), i + 1))) |> Seq.toArray |> Array.rev

For simplicity let’s assume that all inputs are already nice and valid (no nulls, the product of dimensions is equal to the length of array and so on), then reshape might look like:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  let reshape (arr: Array) (dims: int[]) = let t = arr.GetType().GetElementType() let ts = types t dims.Length let rec init dim k = if dim = dims.Length - 1 then fill ts.[dim] dims.[dim] (fun i -> arr.GetValue (k * dims.[dim] + i)) else fill ts.[dim] dims.[dim] (fun i -> init (dim+1) (k * dims.[dim] + i)) init 0 0

This function initializes the elements sequentially:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  reshape [|1..12|] [|2;3;2|] // val it : Array = // [|[|[|1; 2|]; [|3; 4|]; [|5; 6|]|]; [|[|7; 8|]; [|9; 10|]; [|11; 12|]|]|] reshape [|1..12|] [|2;6|];; // val it : Array = [|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6|]; [|7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12|]|] reshape [|1..12|] [|1;1;12|];; // val it : Array = [|[|[|1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12|]|]|] (reshape [|1..12|] [|2;3;2|]).GetValue 1 :?> int[][] // val it : int [] [] = [|[|7; 8|]; [|9; 10|]; [|11; 12|]|]

However, that’s not how the original function works. For example (you can try it out in octave-online),

 1 2 3 4 5  squeeze(reshape((1:12),[2 3 2])(2,:,:)) ans = 2 8 4 10 6 12

It might take a while to get a feeling how the arrays are reshaped, just run some examples and check where the numbers go. Meanwhile here’s a function which does what’s required:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  let reshape (arr: Array) (dims: int[]) = let t = arr.GetType().GetElementType() let ps = prods dims let ts = types t dims.Length let rec init dim k = if dim = dims.Length - 1 then fill ts.[dim] dims.[dim] (fun i -> arr.GetValue (ps.[dim] * i + k)) else fill ts.[dim] dims.[dim] (fun i -> init (dim+1) (ps.[dim] * i + k)) init 0 0 (reshape [|1..12|] [|2;3;2|]).GetValue 1 :?> int[][];; // val it : int [] [] = [|[|2; 8|]; [|4; 10|]; [|6; 12|]|]

In the end we do get a new array together with its type information, so the type provider can help you to avoid the casts from System.Array.